The role of bone marrow stromal cells in blood diseases and clinical significance as a crucial part of the hematopoietic microenvironment

Xinyan Liang, Erwei Song

Abstract

Bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) usually refers to a group of multipotential, heterogenous members within the bone marrow that act as stem/progenitor cells of the bone tissue and are indirectly responsible for hematopoiesis. They could differentiate into diverse phenotypes, including endothelial cells, fibroblasts, adipocytes, osteoblasts, osteoclasts, etc. which together form the skeletal structure and compose most of the hematopoietic microenvironment (HME) sponsoring the regular production of blood elements. However, when blood diseases happening, these sponsors neglect their duty to become hypofunctional or even revolt to support tumor growth resulting in the suppression of normal hematopoiesis and progression of the disease. Consequently, in this review, we focus on BMSCs, a crucial part of the HME, discussing their changes under the pathological condition and expounding their profound roles involving in several hematopoietic diseases. By understanding the performance of BMSCs, more potential therapeutic applications and targets will be discovered and thus, the available regimen could be supplied to achieve a satisfactory curative effect.